A comparative study of SDS- and DSS-functionalized graphene as adsorbents for removal of 137Cs ions from low level radioactive waste
Graphene (GR) functionalized with aerosol 501 "dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium" (DSS/GR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS/GR) were synthesized and characterized by analytical techniques including BET surface area, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The SEM images provide a direct evidence for the existence of sulfonic and sulfate anchors, respectively, by adding DSS and SDS surfactants to graphene structure where GR cavities effectively reduced. The XRD patterns of SDS/GR and DSS/GR exhibit reflection peaks at 2θ of 22.69° and 21.72° with interlayer spacings of 0⋅39 and 0.41 nm, respectively. These interlayer spacings were larger than that of GR, due to intercalating functional groups of SDS and DSS. The characteristic features of these samples were investigated as adsorbents to remove 137Cs ions from low level radioactive waste (LLW). It was found that adsorption of 137Cs ions onto GR, SDS/GR and DSS/GR were relatively fast and the equilibrium state reached after 60, 40, and 30 min, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 137Cs ions inferred from the Langmuir model increases in the following order: GR ˂ SDS/GR ˂ DSS/GR. Results suggest that the sorption of 137Cs ions onto each samples followed the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamics were discussed.
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